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Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Who experiences discrimination in Brazil? Evidence from a large metropolitan region

James Macinko1*, Pricila Mullachery1, Fernando A Proietti2 and Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa23

Author Affiliations

1 Dept. of Nutrition, Food Studies & Public Health, New York University, New York, USA

2 Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

3 René Rachou Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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International Journal for Equity in Health 2012, 11:80  doi:10.1186/1475-9276-11-80

Published: 18 December 2012

Abstract

Introduction

Perceived discrimination is related to poor health and has been offered as one explanation for the persistence of health inequalities in some societies. In this study, we explore the prevalence and correlates of perceived discrimination in a large, multiracial Brazilian metropolitan area.

Methods

The study uses secondary analysis of a regionally representative household survey conducted in 2010 (n=12,213). Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression assess the magnitude and statistical significance of covariates associated with reports of any discrimination and with discrimination in specific settings, including when seeking healthcare services, in the work environment, in the family, in social occasions among friends or in public places, or in other situations.

Results

Nearly 9% of the sample reported some type of discrimination. In multivariable models, reports of any discrimination were higher among people who identify as black versus white (OR 1.91), higher (OR 1.21) among women than men, higher (OR 1.33) among people in their 30’s and lower (OR 0.63) among older individuals. People with many health problems (OR 4.97) were more likely to report discrimination than those with few health problems. Subjective social status (OR 1.23) and low social trust (OR 1.27) were additional associated factors. Perceived discrimination experienced while seeking healthcare differed from all other types of discrimination, in that it was not associated with skin color, social status or trust, but was associated with sex, poverty, and poor health.

Conclusions

There appear to be multiple factors associated with perceived discrimination in this population that may affect health. Policies and programs aimed at reducing discrimination in Brazil will likely need to address this wider set of interrelated risk factors across different populations.

Keywords:
Discrimination; Brazil